LAURA KING : ‘The School Case of Poor Harold: Families’ multi-generational remembrance of deceased children in twentieth-century England’ (12 mai)

Jeudi 12 mai de 17h à 18h30 – Salle D040 à Serpente

 

LAURA KING (Leeds) : ‘The School Case of Poor Harold: Families’ multi-generational remembrance of deceased children in twentieth-century England’

 

‘Poor Harold’ died in 1931, aged nearly eleven, and left behind a school case. This paper examines the story of this ‘ordinary’ boy and his family, who have chosen to preserve his memory through the keeping of this object. The paper examines the case itself, and the story associated with it, as told by Harold’s niece Maureen. In doing so, the article explores remembrance culture in interwar England and inter-generational memory cultures since, focusing on emotional practices, attitudes to death, cross-generational family identities, and changing engagement with religion and faith.

 

Latest monograph : Family Men: Fatherhood and Masculinity in Britain, c.1914-1960 (Oxford University Press, 2015)

 

Contact : Stéphane Jettot jettot@yahoo.com



Chris Manias, ‘The Age of Mammals: Nature, Development and Palaeontology in the long nineteenth century’ (14 avril)

Séminaire franco-britannique d’histoire

https://sfbh.hypotheses.org/

Maison de la Recherche, 28 rue Serpente, Paris 6e, Salle D421, de 17h à 18h30

(La séance aura lieu en présentiel uniquement. Un enregistrement sera diffusé ultérieurement sur la chaine youtube du séminaire ).

 

Jeudi 14 avril 2022 à 17h: Chris Manias (King’s College), ‘The Age of Mammals: Nature, Development and Palaeontology in the long nineteenth century

 

Abstract

When people today hear ‘paleontology,’ they immediately think of dinosaurs. However, for much of the history of the discipline, scientists and public audiences seeking dramatic demonstrations of the history of life focused on something else: the developmental history of the mammals. Assumptions that ‘the Age of Mammals’ represented the pinnacle of animal life made mammals crucial for understanding the formation (and possibly the future) of the natural world. Yet this combined with more troubling notions, that seemingly promising creatures had been swept aside in the ‘struggle for life’ or that modern biodiversity was ‘impoverished’ compared to previous eras. Why some prehistoric creatures, such as the sabre-tooth cat and ground sloth, had become extinct, while others seemed to have been the ancestors of familiar animals like elephants and horses, were questions loaded with cultural assumptions, ambiguity and trepidation. And how humans related to deep developmental processes, and whether the ‘Age of Man’ was qualitatively different from the ‘Age of Mammals,’ led to reflections on humanity’s place within the natural world.

 

This paper will outline Chris Manias’ current book project, which examines how nineteenth-century scholars, writers, artists and publics understood the developmental history of the mammals ­- the animals they regarded as being at the summit of life. Using mammal paleontology as its central focus, the project examines how paleontological theories of development and reconstructions of fossil beasts led to new understandings of the environment and animal world. Taking in examples from Europe, North and South America, and colonial contexts, the project argues that nineteenth-century engagement with animals and the environment were preconditioned on ideas drawn from the deep-time sciences, which promoted a world-wide vision of nature and modern life as inscribed by a deep natural history.

 

 

Biography

Chris Manias is Senior Lecturer in the History of Science & Technology at King’s College London.  He is a specialist in the history of science in modern Europe and North America, with special interests in the history and wider cultural impacts of the human, evolutionary and deep-time sciences.  His first book, Race, Science and the Nation: Reconstructing the Ancient Past in Britain, France and Germany, 1800-1914, examined the transnational development of understandings of national origins in the nineteenth-century, and interchanges between anthropology, archaeology and comparative linguistics.  He is currently working on a book project entitled The Age of Mammals: Nature, Development and Palaeontology in the Long Nineteenth Century (forthcoming with University of Pittsburgh Press, 2023), which examines how the deep past of the mammals was reconstructed in the nineteenth century, and used to define the present of the natural world. 

 

Barbara Crosbie, ‘The Rising Generations: Age Relations and Cultural Change in Eighteenth-Century England’ (7 avril)

Jeudi 7 avril de 17h à 18h30 – Salle D040 à Serpente

De façon exceptionnelle, l’intervenante sera à distance. Lien de connexion disponible auprès de Stéphane Jettot jettot(at)yahoo.com

 

BARBARA CROSBIE (DURHAM), “The Rising Generations: Age Relations and Cultural Change in Eighteenth-Century England”

The eighteenth century is not generally associated with the formation of social generations, and yet contemporaries were clearly aware of their place within distinct generational cohorts. The interactions between these age groups were an important driver of cultural change as the experience of older adults inexorably gave way to the expectations of each rising generation. It is this process of intergenerational transition that is placed under the spotlight in this paper, with age providing both the subject of study and the framework for a discussion about the process of historical change.   

 

Attention is centred on the generational divisions that spilled into the political arena in Newcastle upon Tyne during the general election of 1774, as youthful demands for autonomy became conflated with political demands for reform. Seeking to understand how and why this age-based tension arose leads back to the nurseries and schoolrooms in which formative years were spent, and traverses the volatile terrain of adolescence, before arriving in the adult world of fashion and politics. This exposes the roots of the political faction that emerged as the mid-century children reached adulthood, making it possible to map the often circuitous links between child’s play and a contested election. But more than this, it provides an analytical structure that obliges us to recognise that people lived through not in the past. 

 

Hugh McLeod, “Le déclin de la chrétienté en Occident. Autour de la crise religieuse des années 1960” (31 mars)

Séminaire franco-britannique d’histoire
Jeudi 31 mars 2022, 17h-18h30
Maison de la recherche
28 rue Serpente, Paris 6e, salle D421

Hugh McLeod (Birmingham), autour de son livre Le déclin de la chrétienté en Occident. Autour de la crise religieuse des années 1960 (traduit par Elise Trogrlic, Labor et Fides, 2021)

Dans cet ouvrage élevé au rang de « classique » par l’English Historical Review, McLeod revisite la crise religieuse des années 1960 dans une perspective européenne et nord-américaine. Son usage des sources orales rend son travail très original et la perspective comparatiste qu’il adopte est assez rare pour être soulignée. Le texte a pour particularité de situer les questions religieuses dans un contexte véritablement international, contribuant ainsi à une histoire internationale de la spiritualité et de la sécularisation, autour de la notion de «déclin» de la chrétienté (revisitée), de la montée de la société de consommation dans les années 1960, de l’année 1968, et des questions de sexualité et de genre. L’ouvrage explore ainsi les interrogations de la décennie des « sixties » pour nous aider à mieux saisir les questions religieuses et spirituelles qui agitent nos sociétés contemporaines.

Traduit de l’anglais par Élise Trogrlic. Préface de Guillaume Cuchet et Géraldine Vaughan

Nigel Leask, ‘Globalizing the Highland Tour: Ossian, Earth History, and ‘Fingal’s Cave” (24 mars)

Jeudi 24 mars 2022, 17h-18h30
Maison de la recherche
28 rue Serpente, Paris 6e, salle D421


Nigel Leask (University of Glasgow)

Globalizing the Highland Tour: Ossian, Earth History, and ‘Fingal’s Cave’.

In this paper I reflect on themes connected with the 18th century Highland Tour, notably Ossianic enthusiasm, global networks, geology, and the dawn of the carbon age. I will discuss two illustrated travel accounts, both the work of naturalists and Ossian enthusiasts, that established ‘Fingal’s Cave’ as the ultimate destination of the romantic tour. The first is English naturalist Joseph Bank’s journal account of his ‘discovery’ of Staffa on the course of his voyage to Iceland in 1772, published in Thomas Pennant’s Voyage to the Hebrides (1774). The second is French vulcanologist Barthelemy Faujas de Saint-Fond’s Voyage en Angleterre, en Ecosse, et aux Iles Hebrides (1797) narrating his tour to Staffa a decade after Banks in 1784, and exploring some of the transformations wrought on his narrative by geological and political revolutions.

 

Nigel Leask occupe la Regius Chair of English Language and Literature à l’université de Glasgow.  Il travaille sur de nombreux thèmes comme la figure de Robert Burns, l’orientalisme romantique, les récits de voyage et l’empire ou encore la littérature anglo-indienne de la période romantique. On lui doit notamment Old Ways, New Roads, Travels in Scotland 1720-1832 (Birlinn, 2020), Philosophical Vagabonds: Pedestrianism, Politics, and Improvement on the Scottish Tour (University of South Carolina Press, 2019), Robert Burns and Pastoral: Poetry and Improvement in Late-18th Century Scotland (Oxford University Press, 2010), Curiosity and the aesthetics of travel writing, 1770-1840: from an antique land (Oxford University Press, 2002).


Contact: jean-francois.dunyach@sorbonne-universite.fr

Thomas Jones, “The Foreign Jews Protection Committee: refugee protection and relief in First World War Britain” (17 mars)

Jeudi 17 mars 2022 à 17h_ Thomas Jones (University of Buckingham) “The Foreign Jews Protection Committee: refugee protection and relief in First World War Britain”. 

The First World War was a watershed moment in the history of political and religious asylum in Britain. Though now mostly remembered for the welcome given to Belgian refugees in 1914, the war years saw the permanent end to the legal framework of asylum and prevailing public attitudes towards refugees that had been shaped by the Victorian notion of a universal ‘right of asylum’. Refugees’ rights were significantly curtailed, and many deemed to be of hostile national origin or political orientation were interned and deported, with postwar legislation permanently embedding the new restrictionist dispensation. 

This paper will explore these developments by examining the Foreign Jews Protection Committee, a refugee organization that transformed itself several times in response to the shifting political landscape of these years. Alternatively a mass campaigning body, a registered ‘war charity’, and a conduit facilitating the flow of information and relief funds between the British state and resident refugee populations, the remarkably adaptive FJPC illustrated the bewildering and decisive changes to British asylum wrought in these years.

Thomas C. Jones is a Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Buckingham. His work focuses on exile, transnationalism, and political thought in modern Europe. He was a founding member of the AsilEuropeXIX network and is currently writing a history of asylum in Britain for Harvard University Press.

Andrew Mackillop, ‘Making Britain? The London-Scots in the long 18th century, c.1690-c.1820’ (10 mars)

Séminaire franco-britannique d’histoire
Jeudi 10 mars 2022, 17h-18h30
Maison de la recherche
28 rue Serpente, Paris 6e, Attention : salle D040

Andrew Mackillop (University of Glasgow) : Making Britain? The London-Scots in the long 18th century, c.1690-c.1820

While early modern Scotland’s history of heavy out migration to Ireland, Western and Northern Europe, and increasingly Britain’s global empire is now a well understood phenomenon, the London dimension remains tellingly neglected.  This paper considers what a greater focus on burgeoning Scottish human mobility to the metropole of the British and Irish Isles tells us about the country’s trajectory within the British Union and Empire. The paper will reflect on why the topic has suffered such historiographic neglect, outline some of the key sociological features of the London-Scots, before considering questions of associational trends and identities.

Andrew Mackillop est Senior Lecturer in Scottish History à l’université de Glasgow, ses recherches portent sur l’intégration des Écossais dans l’ensemble britannique, particulièrement l’empire, au cours du long dix-huitième siècle. Il a notamment publié Human Capital and Empire: Scotland, Ireland, Wales and British imperialism in Asia, c.1690-c.1820, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2021.

Contact: jean-francois.dunyach@sorbonne-universite.fr

Matilda Greig, “Napoleonic War Veterans and the Military Memoir Industry, 1808-1914” (27 jan.)

Jeudi 27 janvier à 17h : Matilda Greig (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelone), autour de son  livre, Dear Men Telling Tales: Napoleonic War Veterans and the Military Memoir Industry, 1808-1914 (Oxford, 2021)

As Napoleon’s wars drew to a close in 1815, a series of ripples flowed out into the publishing world. Veterans of the different campaigns had begun releasing memoirs of their experiences, in greater numbers than ever before, and with the help of descendants, publishers and translators, the tide would continue until well into the twentieth century. In this discussion of my book, Dead Men Telling Tales: Napoleonic War Veterans and the Military Memoir Industry, 1808-1914 (Oxford University Press, 2021), I explore the impact these personal stories had upon the history and representation of this period. Taking the Peninsular War as my case study, I show how the ‘soldier’s tale’ evolved differently in Spain versus France and Britain, how national histories of the same war remained starkly opposing over time, and how veterans themselves played an active role in the publication of their work. I conclude by considering the ironic legacy these books and their lasting commercial success left for the First World War generation – a myth of war as a positive, exciting and masculine experience, where quick victory was possible and glory could be won.

Laura Carter, ‘Education, popular history, and everyday life in Britain, 1918-1979’ (28 oct.)

Maison de la Recherche, 28 rue Serpente, Paris 6e, Salle D421, de 17h à 18h30 (La séance aura lieu en présentiel uniquement. Un enregistrement sera diffusé ultérieurement sur la chaine youtube du séminaire).

Jeudi 28 octobre à 17h : Laura Carter (Université de Paris / LARCA), autour de son livre Histories of Everyday Life. The Making of Popular Social History in Britain, 1918-1979 (Oxford University Press, 2021)

Title: ‘Education, popular history, and everyday life in Britain, 1918-1979’

Abstract: This paper explores the argument put forth in my latest book, Histories of Everyday Life: The Making of Popular Social History in Britain, 1918-1979 (Oxford University Press, 2021). The history of social history in twentieth-century Britain usually begins in the 1960s, with the rise of ‘history from below’, emanating from universities. This paper presents an alternative, educational history of social history in modern Britain, focusing on popular publishing, the BBC, museums, and the state school classroom. It argues that after 1918 popular social history in Britain was primarily shaped by pedagogical ideas about how ‘ordinary’ people made sense of the past. This form of mass historical education defined mid-twentieth century attitudes to history, and gave female educators a prominent role in crafting historical narratives. It declined in the 1970s not because academics invented a better alternative, but because a more diverse educational public began to demand a different type of history, one that directly addressed issues of power.

Laura Carter est Maîtresse de Conférences en histoire britannique à l’Université de Paris et membre du LARCA.

 

 

John-Erik Hansson, « Former et réformer la jeunesse : William Godwin et les enjeux de l’écriture de livres pour enfants » (7 oct. 2021)

Jeudi 7 octobre à 17h : John-Erik Hansson (Université de Paris / LARCA), « Former et réformer la jeunesse : William Godwin et les enjeux de l’écriture de livres pour enfants ».

William Godwin (1756-1836) est connu d’abord et avant tout comme un « jacobin anglais », auteur de l’anarchisante Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793) et du roman jacobin Caleb Williams (1794). Il est toutefois également l’auteur d’essais sur l’éducation et la pédagogie – publiés dans The Enquirer (1797) – et de livres pour enfants (entre 1802 et 1822). De 1805 à 1825, il est même propriétaire d’une librairie et maison d’édition, la Juvenile Library, pour laquelle il rédige 9 ouvrages allant du recueil de fables à l’histoire de la Grèce antique. Je propose dans cette communication de revenir sur ces textes trop souvent vus comme mineurs, l’œuvre d’un auteur dans le besoin, détachés de l’action d’un Godwin qui disparaît graduellement du paysage politique à partir de la fin des années 1790. En remettant ces ouvrages dans le contexte de sa pensée politique, de l’offre de livres pour enfants de l’époque et des débats de la fin du XVIIIè et du début du XIXè siècle concernant notamment l’éducation, la moralité, la religion et l’histoire, je montre qu’au contraire, Godwin cherche à poursuivre ses efforts de réforme politique à travers ces livres. Il s’attaque aux fondements de l’éducation des classes moyennes britanniques, afin de contribuer à la formation d’une nouvelle génération qui engagerait la marche vers le progrès social et politique.

 

Reforming the youth: William Godwin as a writer of children’s books

William Godwin (1756-1836) is mostly known as an “English Jacobin” and as the author of the anarchistic Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793) and the Jacobin novel Caleb Williams (1794). However, he was also the author of essays on education – collected in The Enquirer (1797) – and children’s books (between 1802 and 1822). From 1805 to 1825, he even owned a bookselling business, the Juvenile Library, for which he wrote 9 works, from a collection of fables to a history of Classical Greece. In this paper, I want to examine these works which have too often been treated as minor, the hackwork of a penniless out-of-fashion radical, detached from the political activity that had made him famous in the 1790s. Against this view, I show that these children’s books were Godwin’s way of pursuing radical reform. To do so, I replace them works in the contexts of Godwin’s own thought, the range of similar writing for children at the time, and broader late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century intellectual debates, particularly those concerning education, morality, religion, and history. I show how Godwin challenged the foundations of middle-class education in Britain, to contribute to the growth of a new generation, better equipped to bring about social and political progress.

John-Erik Hansson est Maître de Conférences en histoire britannique à l’Université de Paris et membre du LARCA. 

Maison de la Recherche, 28 rue Serpente, Paris 6e, Salle D421, de 17h à 18h30 (La séance aura lieu en présentiel uniquement. Un enregistrement sera diffusé ultérieurement sur la chaine youtube du séminaire).

Barbara Bombi, « Diplomatic communication: how to convey messages at the papal curia between the 13th and 14th century » (15 avril)

Jeudi 15 avril 2021, 17h : Barbara Bombi (Kent), « Diplomatic communication: how to convey messages at the papal curia between the 13th and 14th century »

La communication de Barbara Bombi portera sur les pratiques diplomatiques et administratives de la fin du Moyen Âge et en particulier sur l’acheminement des messages depuis l’Angleterre vers la Curie pontificale au tournant des XIIIe et XIVe siècles. Se fondant sur les résultats de son étude récente des relations entre l’Angleterre et la papauté pendant la première phase de la guerre de Cent ans (1337-1360), Barbara Bombi traitera de la communication écrite, de « l’auralité » pratique, de l’oralité et des procédures cérémonielles. Trois avenues en particulier seront explorées: 1) comment les pratiques administratives furent-elles forgées et utilisées dans le discours diplomatique anglo-papal dans la première moitié du XIVe siècle ? 2) Ces pratiques se développèrent-elles en raison de développements parallèles mais autonomes dans différentes régions, ou à la suite d’influences mutuelles? 3) À qui doit-on l’essor et l’application des pratiques administratives?

Barbara Bombi est professeur d’histoire médiévale à l’Université du Kent. Spécialiste d’histoire ecclésiastique et religieuse, elle est l’auteur de Anglo-Papal Relations in the Early Fourteenth Century: A Study in Medieval Diplomacy (Oxford, 2019), Oliviero di Colonia, I Cristiani e il favoloso Egitto. Scontri e incontri durante la V crociata (Milan, 2009), Il registro di Andrea Sapiti, procuratore fiorentino presso la curia papale nei primi decenni del XIV secolo (Rome, 2007), Novella plantatio fidei. Missione e crociata nel nord europa tra la fine del XII e i primi decenni del XIII secolo (Rome, 2007).
 

 

Lien Zoom habituel, disponible sur simple demande auprès de Frédérique Lachaud

Anna Marie Roos, “The First Egyptian Society (1741-43): The Royal Society, natural philosophy, and antiquarianism” (1er avr.)

Jeudi 1er avril à 17h : Anna Marie Roos (University of Lincoln), “The First Egyptian Society (1741-43): The Royal Society, natural philosophy, and antiquarianism”

 

The Egyptian Society (1741-43), the first of its kind, was created in Georgian England for the purpose of ‘promoting and preserving Egyptian and other antient learning’. Its antiquarian members either travelled to the Land of the Pharaohs as part of their Grand Tour, or were simply interested in Egypt’s material culture. As Mark Thomas Young (Centaurus, 2017) has indicated, fellows of the early Royal Society attended experimental demonstrations sometimes to produce effects for themselves, but more often to access ‘empirical material from which causal and axiomatic principles could be derived through discursive practice’. At society meetings, members could access this material in a variety of ways; experimental demonstrations existed alongside the reading of experimental reports, accounts of lay empirical practices and travellers’ reports’. The Egyptian Society fellows followed the same methodology, to discover principles of sociocultural and religious practices in Egypt, as well as to provide ‘object biographies’ of artefacts that belonged to members that they examined with speculations on manufacture and use.  I will show that the Egyptian Society approach to textual sources and artefacts was informed by the empiricism of the Royal Society, a form of what I term ‘scientific antiquarianism’. 

 

Anna Marie Roos is a Professor of the history of science and medicine at the University of Lincoln. She studies the early Royal Society, as well as natural history, chemistry, and medicine in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. She is Editor of Notes and Records: The Royal Society Journal of the History of Science. She has published The Salt of the Earth: Natural Philosophy, Medicine and Chymistry in England, 1650-1750 (Brill, 2007), Web of Nature: Martin Lister (1639-1712), the First Arachnologist (Brill, 2011), Martin Lister and His Remarkable Daughters. The Art of Science in the Seventeenth Century (Bodleian Library, 2018), and Goldfish (Reaktion Books, 2019). Her latest book, Martin Folkes (1690-1754). Newtonian, Antiquary, Connoisseur, is due in April 2021 with Oxford University Press.

 

Participer à la réunion Zoom : lien habituel, disponible auprès de Sandrine Parageau

 

Julian Pooley, “Printing the Past: Discovering the Archive of the Nichols family of printers, antiquaries and editors of the Gentleman’s Magazine,1777-1873” (25 mars)

Thursday March 25, 2021 at 5 p.m. : Julian Pooley (University of Leicester) “Printing the Past: Discovering the Archive of the Nichols family of printers, antiquaries and editors of the Gentleman’s Magazine,1777-1873”.

 

This paper tells the story of how the purchase of an anonymous pocket diary in a London bookshop, led me to discover extensive and previously unknown archives of John Nichols (1745-1826) and his family of printers, antiquaries and editors of the Gentleman’s Magazine.  Nichols was one of Georgian London’s most prominent printers, contracted to print for Parliament, the Royal Society and Society of Antiquaries.  He was also a literary biographer, chronicling the book trade and its customers over the long-eighteenth century; a pioneer of Renaissance culture through his Progresses of Queen Elizabeth and a leading antiquary whose History and Antiquities of the Town and County of Leicester 4 vols (1795-1815) transformed the way that English local history was written and illustrated.  The vast archive of family and business papers which he and his successors accumulated inspired his granddaughter to form her own collection of autograph letters, augmented by exchange with other collectors and by purchases in the London and Paris salerooms.  This internationally significant collection is now part of the 20,000 Nichols papers calendared and accessible via the Nichols Archive Database.  This paper will explore the value of the archive for studying the career of John Nichols, his editorship of the Gentleman’s Magazine and his achievements as a literary biographer and antiquary. It will also highlight some of the many French historical documents preserved in this archive.

 

Julian Pooley F.S.A. is Hon. Visiting Fellow of the Centre for English Local History at the University of Leicester and Public Services and Engagement Manager at Surrey History Centre, Woking.

Links:

Nichols Archive Project

https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/history/people/staff-pages/previous-staff/jpooley/julian-pooley

http://www.bibsoc.org.uk/content/nichols-archive-project

 

Séance sur Zoom, lien habituel, disponible auprès de Stéphane Jettot

 <jettot@yahoo.com>

Marie Ruiz, “Training emigrants to the New World: schools of horticulture and agriculture in Britain and Canada” (11 fév.)

Jeudi 11 février 2021 à  17 h : Marie Ruiz (LARCA / université de Picardie),  “Training emigrants to the New World: schools of horticulture and agriculture in Britain and Canada”

 

Cette communication porte sur la formation des migrants et migrantes britanniques en Grande-Bretagne et au Canada et leur préparation à la vie rurale dans les colonies au tournant du XXe siècle. Cette étude est fondée sur les centres de formation pour migrants, partenaires de deux sociétés d’émigration métropolitaines : la British Women’s Emigration Association (1884-1919) et la Church Emigration Society (1886-1929). Ces centres de formation répondaient aux préoccupations de l’époque : les écarts démographiques entre les sexes, la dépression rurale et la productivité coloniale. Le recensement de 1901 indique que seulement 6% des femmes britanniques occupaient officiellement des emplois dans l’agriculture, et elles intervenaient surtout dans la petite culture et l’horticulture. Développer l’emploi des femmes dans l’agriculture et l’horticulture était une solution proposée par les militantes pour l’émancipation féminine. L’étude des centres de formation pour migrants met également en évidence le développement de l’éducation scientifique pour les femmes en réponse aux questions sanitaires de l’époque.

 Participer à la réunion Zoom : lien habituel, disponible auprès de fbensimon(at) free.fr

Aude de Mézerac-Zanetti : “Ceci n’est pas une Réforme” : les changements liturgiques sous le règne d’Henri VIII (3 déc. 2020)

Jeudi 3 décembre à 17h : Aude de Mézerac-Zanetti (Université de Lille) : « “Ceci n’est pas une Réforme” : les changements liturgiques sous le règne d’Henri VIII »

Les circonstances et les causes de l’avènement de la suprématie royale en Angleterre sont bien connues comme l’est le contenu doctrinal ambigu et souvent contradictoire des Actes du Parlement (l’Acte de Dix Articles de1536 à teneur luthérienne implicite et l’Acte des Six Articles de 1539 relativement traditionnel), des Injonctions au clergé (1536 et 1538), du Livre des Evêques (1537) et du Livre du Roi (1543). Ainsi de 1534 à la mort du roi en 1547, le régime d’Henri VIII met en œuvre une double politique religieuse : imposition de la suprématie royale et réforme des abus. La foi du souverain et le contenu doctrinal de ses réformes sont quasiment sui generis et leur interprétation a fait l’objet de multiples débats, évoluant au gré de la succession des écoles historiographiques. Mais jusqu’à présent la dimension liturgique de la Réforme henricienne n’avait jamais été prise en compte. Or la découverte d’un important corpus de marginalia dans les livres liturgiques utilisés dans les paroisses pendant cette période de transition permet de remettre en cause l’idée d’une continuité parfaite des pratiques cultuelles avant et après le schisme de 1534. Plusieurs textes essentiels sont corrigés afin d’éviter toute dissonance entre la prière publique et la réalité politico-religieuse instituée par l’Acte de Suprématie. Cette approche par le bas et par des sources matérielles (le livre de messe en tant qu’objet fonctionnel) permet de contribuer aussi à l’étude de la réception de la suprématie royale et des réformes à l’échelle locale. On constate que des prêtres ont parfaitement bien compris les implications de la suprématie du roi et subtilement modifié les textes au gré des politiques royales. Aussi la nouvelle position du roi à la tête de l’Eglise est-elle mise en scène dans la prière qui en devient un vecteur essentiel de diffusion. En outre, adopter une approche inspirée des travaux sur la religion vécue permet de comprendre ce qui se joue dans l’acte de corriger un missel. La dimension performative est, en effet, double : l’obéissance au roi est mise en scène dans la prière mais aussi dans l’objet matériel voué à être inspecté par les autorités laïques du comté. La suprématie royale s’est d’une part diffusée par la liturgie et d’autre part les changements liturgiques ont transformé une réalité politique en un article de foi pour le peuple anglais. Enfin, on se penchera sur les raisons pour lesquelles la dimension liturgique de la Réforme henricienne a été si longtemps négligée.

Aude de Mézerac-Zanetti est Maître de conférences en civilisation britannique à l’Université de Lille et membre du laboratoire CECILLE

Le séminaire se déroulera sur Zoom. Lien habituel, disponible auprès de  Sandrine Parageau <sparageau(at)hotmail.com>